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After adjustments for birth parental substance abuse, HR decreased to around 1.5 for adoptees and foster children equally.

Biological children of substitute parents did not differ substantially from majority population peers.).

Two general categories of variables have been examined-risk factors and protective factors—although research, to date, has focused primarily on risk factors associated with drug use rather than on abuse and dependence.

The risk of developing alcoholism depends on many factors, such as environment.

Those with a family history of alcoholism are more likely to develop it themselves (Enoch & Goldman, 2001); however, many individuals have developed alcoholism without a family history of the disease.

They found that genetic heritability, personal choice, and environmental factors are comparably involved in the etiology and course of all of these disorders, providing evidence that drug (including alcohol) dependence is a chronic medical illness.

According to the theory, genes play a strong role in the development of alcoholism.

In general, substance abuse rates tend to be higher among men than women (Brady and Randall, 1999; Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004 ; Nolen-Hoeksema and Hilt, 2006), but recent studies point towards a closing gender gap concerning alcohol abuse and dependence (Keyes ).

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